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Design and Testing of Insulated Shipping Containers - 88 kB A large and growing segment of package performance testing has to do with the requirements to keep products at a certain temperature or within a certain temperature range during transit. Medical products, electronics, and others require it on occasion.
Design Parameters for De-Formable Cushion Systems - 1.3 MB De-formable cushion systems are those that wrinkle or crumple in response to a dynamic load such as would occur during a package impact. This is differentiated from a traditional cushion material that compresses during the same impact.
Fragility Assessment - An In-Depth Look at a Now Familiar Process - 534 kB A protective package can be thought of conceptually as that device which provides a protective interface between a fragile product and a potentially harmful environment. The potentially harmful input from the environment can generally be categorized in terms of physical forces such as shock, vibration, compression or similar inputs. It is the job of the packaging engineer to determine what level of input is likely when the product is shipped from the point of manufacture to its ultimate destination, and to provide the protection necessary.
Package Drop Testing - Do's and Don'ts of Package Impact - 541 kB This paper discusses some of the issues involved with the development and testing of a protective package system. Issues related to impact or shock are specifically addressed. The purpose of this paper is to assist those who design and test protective packages. Many elements go into a protective package system, some of which have a large effect on the ability of the package to do its job.
Paper and Corrugated Paperboard - Who, What, When, Where - 4.4 MB Paper is widely used in the packaging business as one of the two broad subdivisions of paper; namely, paper or paperboard. The distinction between paper and paperboard is not a sharp one, but generally speaking, paper is lighter in basis weight, thinner, and more flexible than paperboard. The largest use for paper is in the printing, writing, wrapping, and sanitary purposes, although it is widely used for other purposes as well.
Practical Aspects of Protective Package Design - 108kB Certainly there are numerous sources that one can turn to for precise technical data on the behavior of products and materials in a dynamic environment. But how does one use this information? How does one determine what's important and what isn't in a particular customer interaction? How does one go about designing an optimum package system, or even recognizing when that system has been designed? Finally, how does one know whether the final numbers are believable or if significant question areas exist which would benefit from further analysis?
What's Wrong with the Damage Boundary Test - 194kB The original concept of the Damage Boundary was a simplification of Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) analysis developed for architectural review of buildings and bridges in earthquake zones. The concept was to study how a structure responds to a shock input rather than trying to duplicate all the possible inputs that a structure might have to survive.
Package Engineering Design Testing - 487kB There are numerous sources that one can turn to for precise technical data on the behavior of products and materials in a dynamic environment. But how does one use this information to help design a better package? How does one determine what is important and what is not? How does one go about designing an optimum package system or even recognizing when that system has been designed? Finally, how does one know if the final numbers are believable or if significant questions exist which would benefit from further analysis? These and other areas will be investigated.
Cushion Engineering, Design and Testing - 1.24MB A cushion or "cushion system" is a protective medium that provides an interface between a fragile product and a potentially harmful environment. Primary "harmful" inputs to be considered here are shock and vibration.
Cushion Material Evaluation - 264kB The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the concepts and techniques by which cushion materials are evaluated and the information presented to those who must use it in a package design situation. A wide variety of cushion types are available, including the plastic foam materials, corrugated and paper crushable materials, air cells of various sorts, flexible membranes, and a wide variety of other cushions. Techniques for developing cushion response data for both shock and vibration input will be covered. The advantages and disadvantages of each method of presentation will also be highlighted.
Cushion Material Testing - 154kB The ability of various materials to mitigate shock and vibration input is an important characteristic to the packaging engineer. It is necessary to know exactly what to expect when using certain materials in a particular design situation.
Cushion Vibration Testing Sine vs. Random - 1.81MB This paper discusses the effect of utilizing sinusoidal and random vibration input to collect the cushion response data. Two different spring-mass models are utilized with two different cushion materials. Recommendations are offered for efficient use of the data for vibration attenuating package design. Sample packages are tested using the data and best results are analyzed.
Dynamic Package Testing - Techniques to Optimize Data Collection - 352kB The purpose of this paper is to define certain techniques which can be useful to the package engineer in determining package system performance; that is, how well does the package protect the product. A protective package is a device or material placed between a fragile product and a potentially harmful environment, the purpose of which is to protect the product from the effects of the environment. Although there are many potentially harmful environmental inputs, we will concentrate on the effects of shock (or impact).
Measuring the Distribution Environment - 3.19MB To properly design a protective package system, the engineer requires three important pieces of information. These are: 1. Quantification of the severity of the distribution environment in terms of those inputs likely to cause damage to a product. Typically these are impacts and vibration. 2. Knowledge of the fragility of the product to be protected. 3. Information on the performance characteristics of various cushion materials and systems in terms of shock and vibration response.
Product Fragility Analysis Made Easy - 60kB In reality, fragility is another product characteristic unique to each product, just as size, weight, and color are unique product characteristics. Size and weight are determined by using a scale and/or ruler. In a similar way, product fragility is determined by using calibrated inputs and measuring a product's response to those inputs. It is important to remember that product fragility (1 / ruggedness) is another unique product characteristic and it can be changed both as a function of the initial design and as product modifications, specifically for the purpose of increasing its ruggedness. The term damage is unique to each particular product situation. In some cases, damage may be as minor as the modification of a spray pattern on the trigger spray for a disinfectant product. In other cases, it may be considered total non-functionality of a mechanical product. In still other cases, it may be a latent damage which doesn't show up initially but results in a reduced life expectancy for a product.
Product Shock Fragility Testing - Acquisition and Use - 87kB Product fragility is often determined using the Damage Boundary test procedure described in ASTM D3332.(3) Part of that procedure requires determination of the critical velocity change of the product under test. The duration (half period) of the shock pulse used to conduct the velocity change test is crucial. It must be very short relative to the natural period of the "fragile element" within the product. Some implications of this and recommendations on testing procedures are explored.
Supplying UN Certifiable Boxes - 53kB With the issuance of the Docket 181 final rule in October, 1991, the requirements for hazardous material packaging have changed dramatically. These wide sweeping changes were driven by the need for improved reliability and internationally recognizable emergency response information. It was the need for improved package reliability and standardization that is responsible for the switch to performance oriented packagingPOP design. This new philosophy requires that all packages be tested as complete systems in the manner of their intended use. In other words, if a single box design is to be used to ship a variety of inner packagings or articles, it must be tested (and certified) in each packed configuration. Each configuration is referred to as a design type.
Cushion Dynamics of Molded Pulp - 640kB Before the job of the production and engineering groups at any company is completed, a product must be manufactured and delivered to the ultimate customer and be put into useful service. While this may seem like a simple and straightforward concept, it implies strongly that the product must pass through and survive the distribution environment. Of particular note is the fact that a substantial amount of vibration exists in the distribution environment; probably more than in any other separate element of the product life cycle.
Overpackaging - Throwing Away Money and Clogging Landfills in the Name of Safe Product Delivery - 359kB It's generally accepted that electronics products are often overpackaged in the United States, resulting in an enormous amount of waste both in terms of dollars and bulging landfills. In this article we'll examine some of the reasons and some of the things that can be done about it.
Presentations/Publications/Visual Communications Tools
Hail Impact Testing of Flexible PV Modules Poster - 880kBHere, we investigate the effect of hail impact testing on standard silicon solar cells in non-traditional packaging. We test a variety of constructions without glass superstrates and show the effect of adding additional protective polymer layers. In addition, the effect of the backstop of the test apparatus is explored in anticipation of realistic BIPV installations.
Reproducing Wind Induced Vibration of Solar PV Modules in the Lab Without a Dedicated Wind Tunnel - 2.74MBProvided courtesy of Test Magazine. The micro-crack propogation effects of wind induced vibration can be reproduced in the test lab.