Consumer package goods (CPG) are typically consumable products – food, cosmetics, tools, etc. Our movement to e-commerce has brought specific distribtuion challenges to these packages in recent years.
Packaging for CPG focuses on the protective, containment, convenience, identification, branding, dispensing and utility functions necessary for the product and consumer drivers. Packaging must also be designed to protect against a vast and increasing array of hazards that occur in the omni-channel distribution environment. Testing for such inputs and requirements may include the hazards listed below.
|Package Functions||Hazards & Sources||Typical Test Procedures||Typical Specs||WESTPAK Capabilities|
|Impact/shock protection||Shock related damage from manual handling during storage, transportation, stocking, and in-use.||Package freefall drop tests||ASTM D5276||(8) drop testers|
|Identification and motivation: protection from vibration induced scuffing||Label or container surfaces can become scuffed from transportation vibration resulting in illegible or unappealing package services||Random Vibration tests, Repetitive Bounce tests, Scuff Resistance tests||ASTM D4278 ASTM D999 |
|More than (12) different vibration test systems, (4) Bounce Testers, (4) Scuff testers|
|Temperature and Humidity protection||Temperature and humidity extremes in storage and distribution||High temperature and humidity extremes: low temperature extremes||ASTM D4332||More than (65) different temperature & humidity test chambers|
|Utility: ability to stack the packages for better space utilization||Top load compression from storage and from stacking in vehicles||Compression test to failure: compression test – max load and release||ASTM D642 |
|(2) complete container compression test systems|
|Utility: the ability to resist pressure differentials from high altitude shipment||Lower atmospheric pressure of higher altitudes, above 5000 feet by truck or in aircraft, can expand any closed system||Expansion and over-pressurization of sealed containers or compartments.||ASTM D6653||(4) complete vacuum test chambers|
|Containment: resisting stress cracking from product interaction and top load||Highly acidic or highly basic products can cause stress cracking of polymeric containers in the presence of heat, top load, or pressure||Top-load stress crack testing||ASTM D1693 |
|Top-load fixturing that can accommodate a wide variety of containers|
|Utility: forklift handling stability for unitized pallet loads||Most consumer product pallet loads are handled with forklifts. A sudden turn by the forklift driver can cause a load to come apart on the forks and fall apart.||Fork lift stability course test procedure||ASTM D5331 |
|Complete forklift handling test courses at all lab sites|
|Containment and convenience functions: bottle cap torque retention||The caps on many polymeric bottles can lose retention torque through temperature cycling, vibration, and other distribution hazards.||Cap removal studies following temperature cycling and vibration||ASTM D4278 |
|Complete facilities for cap torque retention studies at all lab sites|
|Utility and Dispensing functions: spray pattern studies||The spray patterns of pump and trigger sprayers can be affected by heat, product exposure, vibration and other hazards||Spray pattern evaluation run before and after heat/cold cycling, vibration, and shelf life tests can address this issue||ASTM D4041||All Westpak locations have the capability to run this analysis|
By subjecting your product/package system to above suggested test procedures, or others, you will quickly determine the ability of the primary, secondary, and tertiary package systems to perform their intended functions in the anticipated distribution and in-use environments. Minor adjustments, major changes, supplier qualifications, material changes, or reevaluations can normally be accomplished at this point, prior to disappointing your customer with poor product quality upon delivery. When considering package testing such as suggested above, remember that your package system will always be tested. The distribution environment will make sure of that. The only question to be answered is “who sees the results first, you or your customer?” A brief and cost effective package system evaluation prior to initial shipment is a good policy regardless of your product.