Material Analysis

Westpak’s Material Analysis aligns with the needs of the customers and industries we serve. Testing provides the information needed to establish or confirm material properties, or evaluate differences between batches or suppliers, for example.

A few of the Material Tests Available from WestPak

Test Type
Description
  •  Tensile strength
  • The ability to resist being stretched apart
  • Compression strength
  • The ability to resist compressive loads
  • Puncture resistance
  • The ability to resist high rate penetration from a sharp object
  • Elongation
  • The ability to stretch, normally at constant strain level
  • Burst strength
  • The ability to resist hydrostatic pressure applied uniformly over a given area
  • Moisture absorption
  • The degree to which moisture is absorbed into material (Cobb)
  • Penetration resistance
  • The ability to resist a slow rate penetration by a spherical probe
  • Stress/strain
  • The relationship between deformation of an object and the force necessary
  • Creep properties
  • The measurement of slow rate deformation under constant stress
  • Cushion curves
  • Vibration or impact data for various thicknesses, drop heights, and static loadings of cushion systems
  • Pin adhesion
  • Measures the adhesive quality of the liners and fluted medium on corrugated paperboard

Coefficient of Friction

Coefficient of Friction

To determine the starting and sliding coefficients of friction for plastic film and sheeting, Westpak conducts the Coefficient of Friction (CoF) test per the ASTM D1894 test standard. The protocol allows five basic ways in which the test apparatus may be assembled. Westpak’s test setup incorporates a precision test sled apparatus, a Shimadzu load frame, and a very accurate load cell to generate test data.

Typical Procedures/Protocols

ASTM 1894

Scuff & Abrasion

Scuff & Abrasion

The durability of printed, painted, or polished services to resist abrasion can be simulated by a scuff test procedure. These procedures can simulate the effects of contact by humans, items, or materials by the use of single or dual-surface abrasion methods and related equipment.

Legibility of labels is very important on pharmaceutical and medical devices. Testing is often tested by means of a Sutherland Rub test or similar. Also, the durability of printed information on keypads, for example, can also be determined by a similar means. Label legibility is very important on pharmaceutical and medical devices and is often tested by means of a Sutherland Rub test or similar. The durability of printed information on keypads, for example, can also be determined by a similar means.

Scuff testing can take a variety of forms. Fortunately, it is a relatively simple and inexpensive procedure to conduct. For abrasive products, the effect of the abrasive material on intended products or package system components is often the objective.

Abrasion Testing

When it comes to product lifecycle, abrasion always has undesirable effects on the product or package whether it occurs during the distribution or the in-use environment. Scuffing, scratching, wear, marring, and rubbing are common terms to describe the damage. Westpak offers a variety of methods for testing products and materials for abrasion resistance.

Sutherland Rub Test
These tests are the industry standards for evaluating scuff or rub resistance of printed or coated surfaces, paper, paperboard, films, and printed materials.

Abrasion Test
Westpak has abrasion testers that can be used for testing most types of products or materials. The rotary abrasion tester can be used to test virtually any flat specimen. Plus, we’ve developed a fully adjustable tester in parameters of cycle speed, stroke length, and load pressure that’s capable of accommodating virtually any product.

Manual Wiping
If you need a human provide the rub test input instead of a machine or fixture, Westpak has access to experienced human rub testers to perform the task. An example would be repetitive wipe downs using swabs dipped in alcohol or liquid soap on the front display of a hand-held electronic device.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
ASTM D4060
ASTM D5264
ASTM F1978

Mullen Burst

Mullen Burst

In a Mullen Burst test, a 1" diameter of material is pressurized from one side by means of a hydraulically driven membrane. The pressure necessary to force the membrane through the test material was referred to as its “burst strength”.

The testing and procedure were adopted by the paper and corrugated box manufacturing business and became a widely used test specification that is still common today. This procedure is closely related to a number of tensile test procedures.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
TAPPI T-810

Creep Testing

Creep, a mechanical property, is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of a static load over time. For cushioning materials, creep may be defined as the change in thickness over a period of time as the result of a compressive load.

Typical Procedures/Protocols

ASTM D2221
ASTM D3575

Cushion Curve Analysis

Cushion Curve Analysis

Cushion Curve testing shows how material reacts to physical impacts which can be used to determine the static loading and required thickness for proper cushion design.

Typical Procedures/Protocols

ASTM D1596
ASTM D4168
MIL-STD 26514

Cobb Test

Cobb Test

The ability of a hygroscopic material to resist the penetration of water is referred to as a Cobb test. Specifically, this test permits the determination of the quantity of water that can be absorbed by the surface of paper or board in a given time. Water absorption is a function of various paper and board characteristics such as sizing, porosity, etc.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
TAPPI T-441

 

Pin Adhesion

Pin Adhesion

The Pin Adhesion test measures the bond between the liners and the corrugated medium in a corrugated fiberboard structure. The test is conducted using a fixture in combination with a load frame, which determines the force required to separate the facings from the flutes.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
TAPPI T-811
TAPPI T-809
TAPPI T-821
TAPPI T-838

Slow-Rate Penetration

Slow-Rate Penetration

This test method permits flexible barrier films and laminates to be characterized for slow rate penetration resistance to a driven probe. The test is performed at room temperature by applying a biaxial stress at a single test velocity on the material until perforation occurs. The force, energy, and elongation to perforation are then determined.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
TAPPI T-811
TAPPI T-809
TAPPI T-821
TAPPI T-838

Edge Crush Test

Edge Crush Test

The Edge Crush Test (ECT) determines the ability of corrugated fiberboard, a material consisting of a corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards, to withstand a crushing load in the edge down orientation. The test indicates the ability of a box constructed with the material to withstand static and dynamic top loading as would occur during warehousing or distribution.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
TAPPI T 811
TAPPI T 809
TAPPI T 821
TAPPI T 838

Flat Crush Test

Flat Crush Test

The Flat Crush Test (FCT) measures the resistance of the flutes of corrugated fiberboard to a crushing force applied in a perpendicular direction tot eh flat surface. The test is satisfactory for single wall or double wall corrugated board.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
TAPPI T-811
TAPPI T-809
TAPPI T-821
TAPPI T-838

Tensile, and Pull Test

Tensile, and Pull Test

Tensile testing is a stretching force designed to determine the maximum tensile strength of the material. Pull testing measure the strength required to pull apart two bonded surfaces. It is often used in the medical device industry to measure and quantify the seal strength of sterile primary packaging.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
ASTM D2221

Peel Adhesion Test

Peel Adhesion Test

There are a variety of test methods to conduct Peel Adhesion testing of pressure - sensitive tapes and adhesives. Westpak uses a load frame to perform the testing at either 180 or 90 degree angles.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
ASTM D3330
ASTM D3654
ASTM D3759

Salt Fog / Salt Spray

Salt Fog / Salt Spray

Salt Fog testing enables one to determine the quality and reliability of a product under corrosive atmospheric conditions.

Westpak performs Salt Fog testing (also referred to as Salt Spray) for Military clients to determine the ability of materials and products to withstand exposure to a saline environment. Testing is conducted in a tightly controlled warm, humid, and salty atmosphere by trained and experienced engineers utilizing a large Salt Fog chamber. Visible corrosion, a result of subjecting a part prone to corrosion to Salt Fog, appears quickly – usually in just a few days. Salt Fog testing is much more aggressive than Damp Heat testing due to the natural effects of warm, salty atmosphere.

Typical Procedures/Protocols
ASTM B117
MIL STD 810G
MIL STD 202